# BIRTH, DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF

ISO-MATHEMATICS, ISO-MECHANICS AND ISO-CHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT

*Lie-isotopic branch of hadronic mathematics, mechanics and chemistry*also known as

*iso-mathematics, iso-mechanics and iso-chemistry*for the representation of time-reversal invariant structures, such as stable nuclei and molecules, composed by

*extended*constituents with Hamiltonian and

*non-Hamiltonian*internal interactions due to the overlapping of the wave packets. We indicate that the Lie-isotopic branch is a particular case of the broader

*Lie-admissible branch of hadronic mathematics, mechanics and chemistry*also known as

*geno-mathematics, geno-mechanics and geno-chemistry*for the consistent representation of time

*irreversible*processes, such as nuclear fusions or combustion. We briefly indicate the anti-isomorphic images of the preceding formulations for the consistent representation of matter-antimatter annihilation and other antimatter data.

**BIRTH OF ISO-MATHEMATICS, ISO-MECHANICS AND ISO-CHEMSTRY**

By assuming that quantum mechanics is exactly valid for the electromagnetic interactions of *point* particles in vacuum, Sir Ruggero Maria Santilli ("Ruggero" for friends and colleagues) proposed in 1978 when he was at Harvard University the construction of the * axiom-preserving isotopies of 20th century applied mathematics, today known as Iso-Mathematics, in the two 1978 monographs*

FTM-I: R. M. Santilli, * Foundations of Theoretical Mechanics,* Vol. I

FTM-II: R. M. Santilli, * Foundations of Theoretical Mechanics,* Vol. II

which were written at the Lyman Laboratory of Physics of Harvard University under DOE support for the verification under strong interactions of the 1935 historical argument by Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen that "Quantum mechanics is not a complete theory" (EPR argument), whose study had been initiated during Santilli's Ph. D. studies in the 1960's at the University of Torino, Italy

Santilli notes in the above monographs that nuclear volumes are generally *smaller* than the sum of the volumes of their constituents, as a result of which, when members of a nuclear structure, protons and neutrons are generally in condition of mutual penetration of their hyperdense charge distributions, by therefore implying that * strong interactions between extended nucleons are non-linear (in the wave functions), non-local (occurring in volumes) and not derivable from a potential*, nowadays called *non-Hamiltonian interactions* (FTM-II) and technically identified as *variationally non-selfadjoint interactions* (FTM-I).

Since these interactions cannot be represented with a Hamiltonian by assumption, Santilli proposed in 1978 that they can be represented with a new operator T^{*} called the *isotopic element,* which is sandwiched in between the product of *all* quantum mechanical quantities (numbers, functions, operators, etc.), resulting in the new associativity-preserving product he called the *iso-product *< (FTM-II, Eq. (5), p. 71, on)

A* B = A T^{*} B, T^{*} > 0, (1)

where the isotopic operator T^{*} is solely restricted by the condition of being positive-definite, but otherwise possesses an arbitrary functional dependence on the coordinates r, momenta p, wave functions ψ and any other needed local variable T^{*}(r, p, ψ, ...) > 0, thus allowing indeed a representation of the indicated non-Hamiltonian interactions.

In the same 1978 proposal, Santilli constructed the isotopies of all branches of Lie's theory, today known as the *Lie-Santilli iso-theory* (see independent references below), with the * iso-commutation rules* (FTM-II, page 148 to 198)

[X_{i}, X_{j}]^{*} = X_{i}* X_{j} - X_{j} * X_{i} = C_{ij}^{k} X_{k}, (2)

and initiated the isotopies of other aspects of 20th century applied mathematics under the full preservation of its axioms, merely realized in their most general possible form.

Thanks to the prior construction of the isotopies of Lie's theory (FTM-II), Santilli constructed in 1993 the axiom-preserving isotopies of the Lorentz symmetry, today known as the Lorentz-Santilli iso-symmetry, by achieving the invariance of *arbitrary speeds of light* propagating within inhomogeneous and anisotropic media. Subsequently, Santilli constructed the isotopies of all other space-time symmetries, including the rotational, SU(2), Poincare', and the spinorial covering of the Poincare' symmetry, see the review.

In the same FTM monographs, Santilli proposed the EPR completion of quantum mechanics into *hadronic mechanics* (FTM-II, p.112, 199, 254) with particular reference to its time reversal invariant *isotopic branch * today known as *iso-mechanics* which is based on the isotopic completion of the Schroedinger equation, today known as the * Schroedinger-Santilli iso-equation * on an iso-Hilbert iso-space *H ^{*}* with iso-states |ψ(r)> (FTM-II, Eq. (14), p. 259)

H * |ψ(r)> = H T^{*}(r, p, ψ, ...) |ψ(r)> = E |*>, (3)

and on the isotopy of Heisenberg's equation, today known as *Heisenberg-Santilli iso-equation* here expressed in the finite form (FTM-II, p.153, Eq. (18a)

i dA/dt = [A, H]^{*} = A* H - H*A, =

= A T^{*}(r, p, ψ, ...) H = H T^{*}(r, p, ψ, ...) A, (4)

and in the finite form (FTM-II, Eq. (16), p. 260)

A(t) = e^{ H T*(r, p, ψ, ...) t i}A(0) e^{- i T*(r, p, ψ, ...) H} =

= U(t) A(0) U^{†}(t),

U U^{†} ≠ I. (5)

As one can see, Santilli achieved in 1978 the foundations of first known isotopic completion of 20th century applied mathematics as well as of the first known quantitative representation of non-Hamiltonian strong interactions represented by the isotopic element T^{*}(r, p, ψ, ...) which is directly contained in the basic dynamical equations (3) (4) (5). Additionally, these discoveries were achieved by preserving all mathematical and quantum mechanical axioms to such an extent, that at the abstract realization-free level, Eqs. (3) (4) (5) coincide with the conventional quantum equations.

*Iso-Chemistry* is the axiom-preserving EPR completion of quantum chemistry with basic dynamical equations (1)-(5) elaborated by iso-mathematics to achieve a deeper treatment of molecular structures via the representation of the non-Hamiltonian interactions due to the overlapping of wave packets of valence electrons.

It should be noted that iso-mechanics and iso-chemistry are invariant over time because they are invariant under anti-Hermiticity, e.g., [A, B]^{*} = - [A, B]^{* †}. Consequently, iso-mechanics and iso-chemistry can only represent *stable* systems with non- Hamiltonian internal interactions, e.g., stable nuclei or molecules. For this reason, Santilli proposed the Lie-isotopic formulations in FTM-II as a particular case of the broader irreversible *Lie-admissible/geno-formulations* for the representation of nuclear fusions or combustion with product (A, B) = A < B - B > A = A R B - B S A, forward H^{>} > |> = E^{>}|> and backward H^{<} < |> = E^{<}|> geno-
equations whose irreversibility is assured by different values of the forward and backward genotopic elements, R ≠ S. Subsequently, Santilli constructed the *hyperstructural and isodual banches of hadronic mechanics* indicated below (see the review

**DEVELOPMENT OF ISO-MATHEMATICS, ISO-MECHANICS AND ISO-CHEMISTRY**

The development of iso-mathematics and iso-mechanics up to maturity for applications has been reported in Santilli's 1995 monographs

EHM-I: R. M. Santilli, * Elements of Hadronic Mechanics,* Vol. I,

EHM-II: R. M. Santilli, * Elements of Hadronic Mechanics,* Vol. II,

the development of iso-chemistry has been reported in the 2001 monograph

FHC: R. M. Santilli, *Foundation of Hadronic Chemistry*,

and applications to biology have been reported in the. monograph

FHB: R. M. Santilli, *Foundation of Hadronic Biology*,.

These books remain to this day the most comprehensive mathematical-physical or mathematical-chemical presentations in their field.

Following the birth of isotopic methods in 1978, Santilli realized that Eqs. (3) (4) (5) do not maintain a crucial property of quantum mechanics, namely, *the preservation of the eigenvalues under the same conditions but at different times,* which property is necessary for the credibility of the experimental verifications. Additionally, Eqs. (3) (4) (5) have a *non-unitary structure* which is known to violate causality, e.g., admitting solutions in which effects precede their causes.

*F*whose unit is the trivial number 1 (1n = n1 = 1). In 1993, Santilli realized that iso-product (1) requires, for consistency, a necessary lifting of the conventional unit 1 into the

*iso-unit*

I^{*} = 1/T^{*} > 0, (6)

I^{*} * A = A * I^{*} = A, (7)

*F*into the novel

*iso-fields*

*F*with elements called iso-numbers

^{*}
n^{*} = n I^{*}, (8)

where, depending on the application, I^{*} can be: an ordinary positive number as used in iso-cryograms (EHM-I, Appendix 2C, p. 84); a matrix representing the extended dimension, shape and density of hadrons (EHM-II, Chapter 6, p. 209 on); or a non-linear combination of wave functions to overcome the huge Coulomb *repulsion* between the *identical* electrons in molecular bonds (FHC, Chapter 4 on).

The axiomatically important property is that the set of iso-numbers (8) for all possible numbers "n" and a given positive-definite iso-unit I^{*} verifies all axioms of a numeric field, thus being fully usable for experiments.

The 1993 discovery of the iso-numbers triggered the reformulation of all preceding mathematical (EHM-I), physical (EHM-II) and chemical (FHC) advanced on iso-spaces *S ^{*}* over an iso-field

*F*. These advances did achieve the needed

^{*}^{*}= E I

^{*}

*under the same conditions but at different times.*In fact, when correctly formulated on the iso-Hilbert iso-space

^{*}over an iso-field

*F*, the Schroedinger-Santilli isoequation (3) becomes

^{*}
H * |ψ^{*}(r^{*})> =

= [ (1/2m) p^{*} T^{*} p^{*} + V^{*} (r^{*} ) ] T^{*} (r, p, ψ^{*}, ...) |ψ^{*}(r^{*})> =

= E^{*} * |ψ^{*}(r^{*})> = E |ψ^{*}(r^{*})>, (9)

where the iso-eigenvalues E^{*} is now iso-invariant under the correct reformulation of time evolution (5) given by,

A(t) = e^{ H T*(ψ*, ...) t i}A(0) e^{- i t T*(ψ*, ...) H} =

= I^{*} (e^{*,H t i}) * A (0) * (e^{*,-itH}) I ^{*}= U^{*}(t) A(0) U^{*†},
(10)

(where e^{*} is the iso-exponentiation, see EHM-I, p. 136), because the above time evolution verifies the conditions of *iso-unitarity* (EHM-I, p. 335)

U^{*} * U^{* †} = U^{* †} * U^{*} = I^{*}.
(11)

In fact, as expected from the need of applying the isotopies to *all* aspects of conventional theories, the class of equivalence of isotopic methods is given by class of all infinitely possible iso-unitary transformations. Causality is then regained on iso-spaces over iso-fields due to the evident topological equivalence between unitarity and iso-unitarity axioms.

It should be recalled that, given a quantum mechanical or chemical model, its EPR completion into an iso-mechanical or iso-chemical model is fully achieved via a simple *non-unitary transform* which maps the unit into the iso-unit, the product into the iso-product, ordinary numbers into iso-numbers, functions into iso-functions, etc. (EHM-I)

U U^{†} = I^{*} ≠ I,

I → U I U^{†} = I^{*},
AB →
U(A B)U^{†} = A^{*} T^{*} B^{*} = A^{*} * B^{*},

n → U n U = n I^{*}, r → U r U^{*} = r I^{*} = r^{*}, f(r) → f^{*}(r^{*}), etc.
(12)

Once an iso-mathematical iso-mechanical or iso-chemical formulation has been achieved in this way, any additional transform has to be iso-unitary resulting in * the numerical invariance of the iso-unit and of the isotopic element* (EHM-II)

U^{*} * I^{*} * U^{* †} = U^{* †} * I^{*} * U^{*} = I^{*},

U^{*} * (A * B) * U^{* †} = A T^{* } B' = A' * B'.
(13)

Despite all the above advances, Santilli communicated to colleagues in the early 1990's that isotopic methods could not yet be applied to specific physical or chemical problems. This was due to the fact that the Schroedinger-Santilli iso-equation (9) generally represents interactions on *volumes*, rather than at isolated points. Consequently, the use of the conventional Newton-Leibnitz differential calculus for the characterization of the linear momentum

p |ψ(r)> = - i ∂_{r |ψ(r)>,
(14)}

would lead to catastrophic inconsistencies. Hence, Santilli had no other option than that of generalizing the Newton-Leibnitz differential calculus from its historical definition at isolated points r, to a covering formulation defined on volumes r^{*} = r I^{*}, which he achieved in the 1996 memoir published at the Italian Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo Vol. 42, 7-82 (1996),

IDC: R. M. Santilli, "Nonlocal-Integral Isotopies of Differential Calculus, Mechanics and Geometries."

In this way, Santilli introduced the novel *iso-differential calculus* which is characterized by all the infinitely possible iso-differentials of iso-coordinates d^{*} r^{*} which are such to recover the conventional differential dr when I^{*} is independent from r (IDC, Eq. 1.27), p.20)

Lim(_{I*→ 1}) d^{*}r^{*} = dr,
(15)

with solution used in physical and chemical applications

d^{*}r^{*} = T^{*} d r^{*} = dr + r T^{*}dI^{*},
(16)

and consequential * iso-partial iso-derivative*

∂^{*}_{ r* }f^{*}(r^{*}) = I^{*} ∂_{r*} f^{*}(r^{*}),
(17)

that finally allowed the consistent definition of the *iso-linear iso-momentum*

p^{*} * | ψ(r^{*})> = - i ∂^{*}_{r*} = - i I^{*} ∂ _{r*} | ψ(r^{*})>.
(18)

The explicit calculation of the iso-angular iso-momentum, iso-dynamical equations and other quantities then followed.

We close this elementary review with the indication of the iso-unit used in most iso-mechanical and iso-chemical models

I^{*} = 1/T^{*} =

= Π_{(α = 1, 2,...,N)} Diag. [ n_{(1,α)}^{2}, n_{(2,α)}^{2}, n_{(3,α)}^{2}, n_{(4,α)}^{2}] ×

× e^{Γ(r, p, ψ*, ...)},
(19)

where:

1) The dimension and shape of the particles are represented by the semi-axes n_{(k,α)}^{2} > 0, k = 1, 2, 3 with normalization for the vacuum n_{(k,α)2 = 1;}

2) The density of the particles is represented by n_{(4,α)}^{2} > 0 with normalization for the vacuum n_{(4j,α)}^{2} = 1;

3) Non-Hamiltonian interactions are represented by the term e^{Γ(r, p, ψ*, ...)} > 0.

The broader *Lie-admissible/geno-formulations* are described in details in EHM-I and II. For the additional branches of hadronic mechanics one may consult the Hyperstructural formulations for biological structures and the isodual formulations for antimatter.

** APPLICATIONS**

We provide below a selected list of primary applications of iso-mathematics, iso-mechanics and iso-chemistry none of which is possible under the conventional mathematics mechanics and chemistry. To prevent a prohibitive length, the references can be obtained from the

OVERVIEW: R. M. Santilli, * Overview of the 2020 Teleconference on the EPR argument*

Alternatively, information and references on specific applications can be obtained via a request in the Message Box below by allowing a few days for a response.

1. Santilli verifications of the EPR argument under strong interactions;

2. EPR entanglement of particles with non-Hamiltonian interactions due to the overlapping of the wave-packets without superluminal speeds;

3.Exact and invariant representations of the Deuteron spin and magnetic moments via Bohm hidden variables;

4. Exact and invariant, non-relativistic and relativistic, hadronic representation of *all* characteristics of the neutron in its synthesis from the proton and the electron in the core of stars;

5. Synthesis of the negatively charged pseudo-proton as a hadronic bound state of a neutron and an electron;

6. Exact and invariant structure models of leptons, mesons and unstable hadrons as hadronic bound state of physical particles produced free in the spontaneous decays, while achieving compatibility with unitary models of particle classification;

7. Exact and invariant representation of the experimental data of the Bose-Einstein correlation via the dimensiion, shape and density of the proton-antiproton fireball without the arbitrary and unknown chaosticity parameters.

8. Intermediate Controlled Nuclear Fusions (ICNF) in ppm of light natural elements without harmful radiations or waste;

9. Synthesis of the negatively charged pseudo-Deuteron as hadronic bound state of a Deuteron and an electron pair;

10. Prediction of the recycling of nuclear waste via the stimulated decay of peripheral neutrons;

11. Prediction of the recycling of nuclear waste via the rapid stimulated decay caused by the negartively-charged pseudo-proton irradiation;

12. Theoretical prediction and experimental verification that light loses (gains) energy when passing through a cold (hot) gas with ensuing redshift (blueshift);

13. Exact and invvariant fit of experimental data on galactic star redshift (blueshift) via the iso-redshift (iso-blueshift) for peripheral cold (hot - near black holes) inner-galactic medium;

14. Representation of experimental data, including those for Arp's pairs et al, on cosmological redshifts via the iso-redshift (Zwicky Tired Light) and the iso-blue-shift;

15. Prediction, confirmations and applications of the new chemical species of magnecules conceived and industrially realized with a fraction of the molecular bond to allow full combustion;

16. The new magnegas fuel with complete combustion;

17. The new Magne-Hydrogen fuel separated from magnegas with bigger specific density and energy content;

18. The new Magne-Oxygen separated from magnegas;

19. The new HHO gas synthesized from water;

20. The novel HyperCombustion of fossil fuels without measurable CO and HC in the exhaust;

21. Hyperstructural initiation of the representation of life.

**ADDITIONAL BOOKS ON ISO-MATHEMATICS, ISO-MECHANICS ISO-CHEMISTRY**

[1] A. K. Aringazin, A. Jannussis, F. Lopez, M. Nishioka, and B. Veljanosky,
* Santilli's Lie-Isotopic Generalization of Galilei and Einstein Relativities,* notes from lectures delivered by R. M. Santilli in 1990 at the ICTP, Treste, Italy, Kostakaris Publishers, Athens, Greece (1991),

http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-108.pdf

[2] D. S. Sourlas, and Gr. T. Tsagas, * Mathematical Foundation of the Lie-Santilli Theory,* Ukraine Academy of Sciences (1993),

http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/santilli-70.pdf

[3] J. Lohmus, E. Paal and L. Sorgsepp, * Non-associative Algebras in
Physics,* Hadronic Press, Palm Harbor, (1994),

http://www.santilli- foundation.org/docs/Lohmus.pdf

[4] J. V. Kadeisvili, * Santilli's Isotopies of Contemporary Algebras, Geometries and Relativities,* Ukraine Academy of Sciences, Second edition (1997),

http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-60.pdf

[5] C.-X. Jiang, * Foundations of Santilli Isonumber Theory,*
International Academic Press (2001),

http://www.i-b-r.org/docs/jiang.pdf

[6] R. M. F. Ganfornina and J. N. Valdes, * Fundamentos de la Isotopia de Santilli,* International Academic Press (2001),

http://www.i-b-r.org/docs/spanish.pdf\\
English translation: Algebras, Groups and Geometries Vol. 32, p. 135-308 (2015),

http://www.i-b-r.org/docs/Aversa-translation.pdf

[7] B. Davvaz and Th. Vougiouklis, * A Walk Through Weak
Hyperstructures and $H_v$-Structures,* World Scientific (2018).

[8] I. Gandzha and J. V. Kadeisvili, * New Sciences for a New Era:
Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Discoveries of Ruggero Maria Santilli,* Sankata Printing Press, Nepal (2011),

http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/RMS.pdf

[9] S. G. Georgiev,
* Foundations of Iso-Differential Calculus *
Nova Publishers, New York

Vol. 1: * Iso-Differential and Iso-Integral Calculus for Iso-Functions in One Variable* (2014)

Vol. 2: * Iso-Differential and Iso-Integral Calculus for Iso-Functions in Several Variables* (2014),

Vol. 3: * Iso-Ordinary Iso-Differential Equations* (2014),

Vol. 4: * Iso-Differential Equations* (2015),

Vol. 5: * Iso-Stochastic Iso-Differential Equations* (2015),

Vol. 6: * Theory of Iso-Measurable Iso-Functions * (2016),

New Edition of Volume 1:

* Iso-Differential and Iso-Integral Calculus for Iso-Functions in One Variable * (2022).

*Iso-Mathematics,*Lambert Academic Publishing (2022)

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